Piano is probably the most versatile of instruments in the variety of arrangements, styles and complexity of music it can produce – making it both one of the most powerful and most intimidating instruments for learning to improvise. Fortunately there are some simple steps you can take to gradually become an expert piano improviser.
How to improvise on piano nr
It’s a taboo among musicians to claim that one instrument is harder than another to learn, but something we’ve been discussing inside Musical U lately is that piano is simply harder than other instruments. It requires an independence and coordination of your two hands in a way that no other instrument really does. It means teaching your brain to process two (potentially quite different) streams of music and integrate them in a coherent way. This all just exacerbates the problem I discussed last week in Improvisational Freedom Through Constraints: that beginners to improvisation can easily feel overwhelmed by the sheer number of options available to them with every note choice they make.

When you sit down at a piano to improvise, not only do you need to make the big decisions like what musical style you’ll play in and what emotions you want to convey, but you then also need to decide beat-by-beat what each of your ten fingers (not to mention those feet on the pedals) will do. Without some kind of framework to help you, this is, frankly, insanely difficult.

So in this article I wanted to present some ideas for getting started with piano improvisation which can help you break past that overwhelm and begin to explore improvisation in a fun, musical way that lets your inner musician out.

Before diving in I’d recommend taking a look at these three background articles that give some valuable general principles for learning to improvise music freely and confidently:

With those principles under your belt, let’s look at some piano specifics for learning to improvise. There are five stages that I’d recommend you go through.

1. Melodies, one hand at a time

Melodies, one hand at a time sm

The first thing I’d say is: start one hand at a time. This is an idea which is familiar to every Grade 1 or Grade 2 piano student but it’s often then forgotten as the student progresses and it may be overlooked when it comes to improvisation. For example, even the rare teacher who helps their students to improvise will often begin by expecting them to maintain a left-hand harmony part while beginning to improvise with their right-hand over the top. That’s already quite a lot to do!

Fundamentals of piano practiceInstead, I recommend beginning one hand at a time, even if you are quite technically proficient on piano. Remember: you are teaching your brain as much as your fingers here. The excellent book Fundamentals of Piano Practice recommends always learning pieces “Hands Separately” before attempting “Hands Together” and I think the same strategy is smart for improvisation.

So begin one hand at a time. And although we tend to think of piano arrangements as being “left hand harmony, right hand melody”, with that right-hand part getting increasingly complicated and polyphonic itself, I would suggest keeping it as simple as possible to start out. Meaning play simple improvised one-note-at-a-time melodies in one hand, and then do the same in the other.

A few tips here:

  • Use the idea of improvisational rules to make things so simple that your inner musical instinct can’t help but start to emerge.
  • Repeat yourself. Instead of trying to make each phrase different and new, let yourself repeat little phrases, licks and riffs, and experiment with changing them just slightly each time. This is a shortcut to improvisation that sounds more intentional and proficient, rather than you producing a continually-changing seemingly-random stream of notes.
  • Use a backing track or play with a friend, so that even if you are playing just simple melodies, you can still feel like you are making interesting music.

Once you start getting comfortable with improvising melodies in each hand, you can move on to harmonies. Which brings us to stage two.

2. Learn your triad chords

Learn your triad chords sm

For me personally this was the major breakthrough in piano improvisation. After a few years of lessons, learning to play pieces and sight-read music, I finally spent a couple of weeks simply learning each of the 24 major and minor triad chords, in both hands. Playing block chords, then playing around with their arpeggios. Learning to play arpeggios across multiple octaves, linking the hands together.

To some extent this is part of the traditional piano syllabus: you learn your scales and the corresponding arpeggios. But teaching myself to think in terms of triads and the visual patterns they created on the keyboard gave me a whole different way to approach the keys in front of me.

Piano triad

It may seem like an arbitrary task to begin with, like learning theory for the sake of it, but get to know those basic major/minor triad shapes, and quickly the keyboard starts coming to life in a way that learning pieces alone doesn’t really deliver.

Tip: Don’t know the fingerings for the major and minor triads? Just do a Google Image Search for “piano chords chart” to find plenty of references you can use or watch this video.

How do chords help you improvise?

Well, as Duane Shinn (whose piano-by-ear materials I would recommend) would put it, thinking in terms of chords lets you “play more notes without reading more notes”. Or in the case of pure improvisation, to play more notes without having to choose more notes. It gives you bigger musical blocks to use in your improvisation, which lets your improvisations get more complex and sophisticated musically, without requiring you to apply massive brainpower to deciding lots of notes very quickly!

This is also an approach recommended by Joseph Pingel of Keyed Up Piano – learn more about his approach to playing by ear here: The Play-By-Ear Mystery Revealed.

Why triads?

Major and minor triads are the most basic form of chords. They sound relatively simple, but learn those shapes and study chord progressions like the “one four five” and you’ll be equipped with some powerful building blocks for creating interesting improvisations.

To explore this approach, simply learn those triads, one key at a time, and start playing around with them. For example: Decide to learn the main triads in the key of C Major, which would be C Major, F Major, G Major and A Minor. Spend time just practising transitioning between those chords in different combinations and voicings, playing them as blocks or arpeggios in different ways. One hand at a time and then start trying both together.

When you feel confident, you can begin to integrate this with what you did in step one, playing simple C Major scale melodies in your right hand over C-F-G-Am chords in your left hand.

Noodling around in this way doesn’t take long to learn – but if you’ve previously been a “sheet music only” musician it can truly transform your relationship with music and give you an early glimpse of the freedom that becoming a “play by ear” musician brings.